The three primary functional components of a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. The anode is made from carbon, the cathode is lithium cobalt oxide, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent.
The three participants in the electrochemical reactions in a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte.
Both the anode and cathode are materials into which, and from which, lithium can migrate. When a lithium-based cell is discharging, the lithium is extracted from the anode and inserted into the cathode. When the cell is charging, the reverse process occurs: lithium is extracted from the cathode and inserted into the anode.